Refinery process heater NOx reductions using staged combustion air lances by R. J. Tidona

Cover of: Refinery process heater NOx reductions using staged combustion air lances | R. J. Tidona

Published by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Industrial Environmental Research Laboratory, Center for Environmental Research Information, [distributor in Research Triangle Park, NC, Cincinnati, OH .

Written in English

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  • Combustion gases -- Thermal properties.,
  • Tube-still heaters.,
  • Industrial equipment -- United States -- Evaluation.

Edition Notes

Book details

StatementR.J. Tidona, W.A. Carter, and H.J. Buening.
ContributionsCarter, W. A., Buening, H. J., Industrial Environmental Research Laboratory (Research Triangle Park, N.C.)
The Physical Object
Pagination3 p. ;
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL15303931M

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United States Environmental Protection Agency Industrial Environmental Research Laboratory Research Triangle Park NC Research and Development EPA/S June SERft Project Summary Refinery Process Heater NOx Reductions Using Staged Combustion Air Lances R.

Tidona, W. Get this from a library. Refinery process heater NOx reductions using staged combustion air lances. [R J Tidona; W A Carter; H J Buening; Industrial Environmental Research Laboratory (Research Triangle Park, N.C.)].

The process heater, burning a combination of oil and refinery gas, was tested in two operating modes: baseline (normal operation) and with staged combustion air for NOx reduction. The test data include preliminary equipment calibration, detailed heater operation, and complete flue gas emission measurement results.

A vertically fired natural-draft petroleum-refinery crude-oil process heater was modified to reduce oxides of nitrogen (NO x) emissions by installing staged combustion air ne NO emissions firing refinery gas before modification were measured to be to parts per million by volume, dry, corrected to 3 percent by: 1.

Tidona, R. J., et al., "Refinery Process Heater NOX Reductions Using Staged Combustion Air Lances," EPA/, NTIS PBMarch Hunter, S. C., W. Carter, and R. Tidona, "Control of NOX Emissions from Petroleum Process Heaters Using Staged Air Lances," presented at the West Coast Section meeting of the Air. The most promising combustion modification to reduce refinery heater emissions and improve efficiency - staged combus- tion air lances - is discussed in detail.

Information appropriate to the design, operation, and maintenance of a staged combustion air lance system for a pro- cess heater is presented. The process heater, burning a combination of oil and refinery gas, was tested in two operating modes: baseline (normal operation) and with staged combustion air for NOx reduction.

EPA/R Alternative Control Techniques Document— NOx Emissions from Process Heaters (Revised) Emission Standards Division U.S. Low NOX burners relying on staged air typically achieve NOX reductions of 40–50 % in gas-fired furnaces and % for oil-fired and coal-fired furnaces.

A low NOX burner designed for fuel staging works the opposite of air staging. In the primary combustion zone, about % of the fuel is injected with all of the air. Although excess. heater to induce combustion air without a forced-draft fan balanced draft – heater that uses forced-draft fans to supply combustion air and uses induced draft fans to remove the flue gases Heater Process Design Draft There are several methods in heater design for supplying the necessary air for combustion and removing the flue gases.

Staged combustion using air injection lances is one form of combustion modifi- cation that is relatively easy to retrofit to industrial-sized combustion equipment since it requires relatively minor hard- ware modification. The report describes the results of testing a refinery crude-oil heater fitted with air injection lances.

Kochi Refinery HEATER Complete Combustion • Complete combustion occurs when % of the energy in the fuel is extracted There must be enough air in the combustion chamber for complete combustion to occur. • The combustion process is extremely dependent on time, temperature, and turbulence.

HEATER BURNERS Staged Air Burner • Low Nox. Performance and NOx Emissions of Refinery Fired Heaters Retrofitted to Hydrogen Combustion Article (PDF Available) in Energy Procedia. Forced-draft staged- combustion-air modifications had been shown to be the most promising combustion modification in previous pilot-scale tests.

The test unit was a vertical, cylindrical, natural-draft crude heater, and the test fuels were natural gas, refinery gas, and a combination of No.

6 oil and refinery gas. Fuel staging (FS), air staging (AS), and selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR) are techniques for abating nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) from boilers and engines. Each of these techniques has a limited range of applicability, within which 50% to 70% NOx reduction is attained.

Higher reductions are achieved by methods that use the aforesaid techniques in. The secondary (%) of the combustion air is injected above the combustion zone through a special wind-box with air introducing ports and/or nozzles, mounted above the burners.

Combustion is completed at this increased flame volume. Hence, the relatively low-temperature secondary-stage limits the production of thermal NOx. Fired heaters contribute typically around % of the emissions in a refinery.

Post-combustion capture for fired heaters has been widely discussed but van Straelen et al. [3] point to the potential problems with post-combustion capture. One of the main issues is that fired heaters are spread out in the.

In this paper, the combustion model of industrial furnace was established using numerical simulations. The application of air-staged combustion technology was used to solve the problem of high NO X emissions produced from the combustion of biodiesel in industrial furnaces.

The simulation results were verified through experiments. Pre-combustion CO2 Capture applied to industrial sources is an alternative for achieving low CO 2 emissions at a moderate cost.

The potential of the technology to be used as retrofit would further expand its possibilities and could be a real benefit to the industry in terms of achieving CO 2 emission reduction at relatively low cost.

The retrofitting of a boiler to hydrogen fuel bears. Table Summary of Emission Factors for Boilers and Process Heaters Firing Various Fuels.

Table Summary of Emission Factors for Internal Combustion Engines Firing Various Fuelsa. Table Summary of Emission Factors for Combustion Turbines Firing Various Fuelsa. Table Combustion air is divided into “primary” and “secondary” flows resulting in stratified combustion.

This solution allow a general reduction of combustion temperature and therefore lowers thermal NOx generation. They are provided with a series of gas lances made from stainless steel which can be adjusted during the operation. The technology retrofit sought to modify the three-burner VC heater to meet NOx emissions of ≤ 6 ppm, corrected at 3% O2 (≤ lb NOx/MMbtu) over a wide range of refinery process.

CO is the best control parameter for the following reasons: CO – Best Process Variable for Combustion Control. The primary reason for watching O 2 levels in a heater is to prevent a condition where insufficient air is being provided to completely combust all the fuel being introduced into a furnace.

Incomplete combustion can produce significant amounts of CO and. Method estimates NOx from combustion equipment. such as refinery process heaters, however, generally burns refinery fuel gases that contain. A process which incorporates a fired heater which is used to obtain Reviewing NOx reduction techniques in terms of staged fuel vs staged air vs staged combustion 18 lmnopq.

Staged Air Burner Flat Flame Burner DynamicsFlat Flame Burner Dynamics Refractory Quarl. Before the first oil crisis ofthe price of refinery fuels was very low and it was common practice to run heaters inefficiently with high excess air (e.g.

5 to 8 % O2 in the flue gas) and high draft to reduce the probability of sub-stoichiometric combustion and positive pressure in the combustion chamber. The FIR burner can achieve ULN emissions of less than 10 ppm without the use of flue gas recirculation. The unique burner design provides excellent flame retention for stable combustion at sub-9 ppm NOx levels.

These low levels of NOx and CO will meet the stringent emission requirements found in California, Houston and other non-attainment zones. to reduce the combustion air flow - reduced excess air.

Another approach is some form of staged combustion that limits the oxygen concentration in some region of the flame. Most staged combustion concepts fall into a category we will call stratified combustion, but there are others - one of which is reburning 1.

Reduced excess air. This is the. Combustion controls to reduce NO x emissions from process heaters include: a. Low excess air, b. Low-NO x burners, c. Staged combustion air (air lances), and d. Flue gas recirculation.

Low Excess Air Low excess air using automatic controls has been applied to more than 50 process heaters in the United States. therefore, the petroleum refining industry is a significant source of GHG emissions. In addition to the combustion-related sources (e.g., process heaters and boilers), there are certain processes, such as fluid catalytic cracking units (FCCU), hydrogen production units, and sulfur recovery plants, which have significant process emissions of CO2.

Title: Fired Heater Optimization Created Date: 8/15/ AM. Natural gas, refinery gas: NOx emissions: Well under mg/m³ at a very high thermal load for the combustion chamber: Design: Staged combustion in the combustion chamber by arranging the burners in two levels, freely programmable SAACKE control system, new gas fitting lines, air preheating to °C.

The deficiency of oxygen in the first zone and the low temperatures in the second zone both contribute to a reduction in NOx production. Staged combustion can result in NOx reductions of up to 60% for natural gas. Due to the staging effect of staged combustion air (SCA) burners, flame lengths tend to be longer than those of conventional burners.

Combustion processes operating with de-NOX equipment will need this superior level of sensitivity. There is a high proportion of NO2 in the emissions of CCGT plants because they run with high levels of air in the combustion process, so it is necessary to convert NO2 to NO prior to analysis.

@article{osti_, title = {Fuel-Flexible Combustion System for Refinery and Chemical Plant Process Heaters}, author = {Benson, Charles and Wilson, Robert}, abstractNote = {This project culminated in the demonstration of a full-scale industrial burner which allows a broad range of “opportunity” gaseous fuels to be cost-effectively and efficiently utilized while.

Test objectives were to determine NOx emission reductions, thermal efficiency changes, long-term performance, and cost of a staged combustion air modification (the most promising combustion. We recommend installing a steam air pre-heater ahead of the plate type air pre-heater, to eliminate the root cause of the problem.

Low pressure steam can be used to preheat the combustion air and as a result, the metal temperature in the plate air pre-heater will always be above the dew point. The combustion air pressure drop was set at ” W.C. at 15% excess air with an air temperature of ° F. The new burners were designed to use lb steam/lb fuel gas injected into the fuel gas stream for.

We found that air-staged combustion affects a pronounced reduction in NOx emissions from the combustion of anthracite coal. The more the air is staged, the more NOx emission is reduced. In shallow air-staged combustion (f{sub M} = ), the fineness of the pulverized coal strongly influences emissions, and finer coals result in lower emissions.

Highlights We assess NOx emission characteristics of the staged combustion of BRXL lignite and its dried coals. Dried lignite emits a smaller amount of NOx than that of BRXL lignite. Dried degree of BRXL lignite is closely related to R 90 fineness. Deep and shallow staged combustion is conducive to NOx reduction in multi-staged combustion.

Unburned carbon concentration. Staged combustion system with ignition-assisted fuel lances US combustion system comprising a furnace having a thermal load and a combustion atmosphere disposed therein; one or more fuel lances adapted to inject fuel into the combustion atmosphere; and one or more igniters associated with the one or more fuel lances and adapted to ignite.Liquid hydrocarbon treating (LPG/PP/BB) - ADIP process.

Applications: Besides its use as a regenerative process for the reduction of H2S to very low levels in gases, the ADIP process is also used to selectively reduce H2S and COS to very low levels in liquid hydrocarbons, such as propane-propylene (PP), butanebutene (BB), LPG and NGLs.Low NOx Boiler Workshops November Overview of Low NOx Burners Presented by Stéphane Laurin, Ing.

Sales Manager, Canada Outline ¿ NOx Theory Review ¿ NOx reductions methods ¿ Low NOx burners ­ DAF ­ Delta NOx ­ QLN ­ QLA ­ ULN #/mmBTU 30 ppm #/MMBtu ppm MMBtu/hr #/MMBtu ppm #/MMBtu ppm

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